What do we know about this link?

Dementia affects at least 55 million people worldwide, and their number is growing by 10 million each year. On the one hand, this is because we live longer, but mental disorders are not necessarily part of old age. So, are there any ways to reduce the risk of developing dementia? Many studies are currently focusing on the potential role of sleep.

Share on Pinterest
What is the relationship between dementia and some sleep patterns? Photo credit: Oleksiy Syrotkin / Stokesy.

in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO), “Dementia is currently the seventh leading cause of death among all diseases and one of the leading causes of disability and dependence in older people worldwide.”

The World Health Organization estimates that about 55 million people suffer from dementia, and by 2050 their number will reach almost 140 million. Between 60% and 70% of people with dementia have Alzheimer’s disease.

Dementia is primarily a disease of old age, however dementia at a young age – where symptoms begin before age 65 – approx 9% in cases. However, dementia is not necessarily a consequence of old age.

There is a genetic component to dementia – if a close relative is mentally retarded, it increases your risk. However, several studies have shown that people at risk of heredity can also reduce it by eating right, exercising regularly, and avoiding alcohol.

Part of a healthy lifestyle is getting proper sleep. Many researchers are now seeing a link between sleep and dementia because Dr. David Merrill is a geriatric psychiatrist and director of the Pacific Brain Health Center at the Pacific Institute of Neurology at Providence St. Johns Health Center in Santa Monica, California. Medical news today.

“Sleep,” he noted, “is a protective or dangerous factor for cognitive health. The impact of sleep on cognitive health depends on the attributes of a person’s sleep, including the quality, quantity, frequency, and even regularity of sleep.

“People are recommended 7-9 hours of quality sleep a day not only for brain health but also for general health.”

– Dr. Percy Griffin, Director of Research, Alzheimer’s Association

So, the optimal number for most people is 7 to 9 hours, but is sleep deprivation a risk factor?

Dr. This was announced by Anton Porsteinsson, Director and Professor of the Alzheimer’s Disease Care, Research and Education Program (AD-CARE) at the University of Rochester Medical Center. MNT it could be.

According to him, “[i]Inadequate sleep duration increases the risk of dementia. This pattern persists even if you look at your sleep pattern for several years or decades before AD becomes clinically apparent.

So maybe we should sleep more? Not according to a large cohort study by Boston University. This study showed that those who slept more than 9 hours a night were twice as likely to develop dementia as those who slept between 6 and 9 hours a night. They also had low brain size.

However, excessive sleep may not be the cause and may be a sign of early neural changes. Researchers in this study believe that prolonged sleep can predict the risk of dementia.

The National Sleep Foundation lists four key features of optimal healthy sleep:

  • fall asleep within 30 minutes after falling asleep
  • Wake up no more than once during the night
  • no more than 20 minutes during the night
  • Spend at least 85% of your time sleeping in bed.

“Impaired, poor-quality sleep observed in sleep disorders can lead to acute and chronic degenerative changes in the brain. Normally, a good night’s sleep literally restores and restores brain function to the level observed at the beginning of the previous day.

– Dr. David Merrill

quality sleep Includes periods of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and REM sleep. Throughout the night of this cycle, the deepest sleep occurs during one of the stages of NREM sleep.

According to one study, low-frequency brain waves during deep NREM sleep clear the brain of beta-amyloid and mountain of toxins associated with Alzheimer’s. These low-frequency brain waves give off impulses to the cerebrospinal fluid that carry toxins.

When sleep is disturbed, brain debris, such as beta-amyloid and mountains, can begin to accumulate, eventually forming plaques and wrinkles characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. Accumulation of beta-amyloid and mountain may begin 10-20 years before the onset of symptoms of dementia.

Dr. Porsteinsson explained: “The brain ‘shrinks’ during sleep, and it seems to open up. [the] The flow of cerebrospinal fluid that releases toxic by-products such as [beta-amyloid] 42 and p-mountain. The brain also restores balance (homeostasis) during sleep. The quality of sleep and how much time you spend in deep sleep are also important here. ”

Sleep apnea is almost unaffected 1 billion In people around the world, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common. The condition often causes the person to stop breathing during sleep and wake up.

People with sleep apnea are at higher risk several health conditionssuch as asthma, cardiovascular problems, atrial fibrillation and cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a link between sleep apnea and dementia.

“Sleep apnea is a health condition that is a risk factor for poor health. A person with sleep apnea cannot breathe while sleeping. […] This leads to potentially dangerous drops of nocturnal oxygenation in the brain. ”

– Dr. David Merrill

it is hypoxia It is believed to cause changes in the brain. One study found that the thickness of temporal particles, which are important for memory, decreased in people with sleep apnea.

Another study showed a decrease in hippocampal volume in people with sleep apnea – hippocampal atrophy Features of Alzheimer’s disease.

The study also found that two toxins — mountain and beta-amyloid — which are thought to be responsible for many of the symptoms of dementia, accumulate in the brains of people with sleep apnea, most likely due to a lack of oxygen in the blood.

Two more studies were added to these findings. one elevated mountain levels were found in people with sleep apnea; apart from they were found to have amyloid plaques.

However, no study has proven the causal effect. And there are effective treatments for sleep apnea, Dr. “Fortunately, we have non-invasive peripheral oxygen monitors that use sleep apnea tests, which can detect these changes and allow effective treatment of OSA to restore nocturnal oxygenation,” Merrill explained.

“OSA gold is the standard treatment [the] Use a continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) device. Studies show that using CPAP, even for 4 hours a day, will reduce the risk of cognitive decline over time, ”he added.

“Dementia disrupts sleep in several ways. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease of the brain cells [experience] dysfunction and gradually dies. As a person loses brain cells, the brain’s sleep centers begin to function [experience] dysfunction – we lose the ability to send signals to fall asleep. Often, sleep is disrupted or reversed, with patients waking up at night and then sleeping for most of the day.

– Dr. David Merrill

A small study showed that daytime sleepiness, which is characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, is associated with the death of key brain cells. Researchers have attributed this to the accumulation of mountain protein in areas of the brain that promote arousal and the loss of neurons.

Recent research has shown that sleep disorders in Alzheimer’s disease can exacerbate symptoms. In this study of mouse cells, the researchers found that when the phagocytosis of beta-amyloid plaques is interrupted, plaques form.

They identified a heparin molecule that stopped this phagocytosis at high concentrations. Heparin levels fluctuate throughout the day and are therefore impaired circadian rhythms It affects levels and can cause plaque formation in Alzheimer’s disease.

The same study suggested that improving sleep may be a way to reduce the symptoms of dementia, but can treating sleep disorders help prevent dementia?

A review of studies on sleep disorders and cognitive decline in 2019 sought to answer this question. It has been found that sleep disorders, including apnea, insomnia, insufficient or excessive sleep, and sleep disorders are associated with cognitive decline and dementia.

There is also a link between sleep disorders and beta-amyloid and mountain sediments. The review concluded that sleep management may be a promising goal for the prevention of dementia.

However, no study has proven a causal link – or how this approach worked. Did sleep cause mental disorders or are sleep problems a sign of early stages of dementia?

The approach is still unclear, Dr. Porsteinsson explained: “Soluble [beta-amyloid] 42 may be [a] Negative effects on sleep, neurodegeneration associated with sleep quality and dementia, damage the centers that control sleep and wake-up cycles. Interestingly, increased need for sleep and excessive sleep at a later age can also prevent Alzheimer’s disease. ”

Dr. Merrill commented: “Dementia remains an incurable disease, and the drugs available are ineffective in treating the symptoms of dementia. Therefore, it is important to use all available strategies to treat sleep symptoms to alleviate the symptoms of dementia.

“Unfortunately, as dementia progresses, it becomes more difficult to maintain sleep hygiene, especially in people who are unaware of their lack of sleep. In such cases, it is important to have special night guards to care for patients, ensure safety and allow day guards to rest.” he added.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and getting enough sleep can reduce the risk of dementia and many other health problems. But the hunt for cause and effect continues.

“More research is needed to fully understand the different characteristics of sleep and the brain, as well as the mechanisms by which sleep affects the biology of the brain over time. We also need research that considers sleep as an intervention for cognitive health.”

– Dr. Percy Griffin

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.