To shed new light on the organization of the human brain

Summary: A new map of the human brain shows that cells, receptors, and gene activity change within the same limits.

A source: The human brain project

Certain cellular, molecular, and gene expression patterns are associated with the functioning of brain regions, but their exact relationship remains largely unknown.

New discoveries by scientists from the Human Brain Project (HBP) shed light on these relationships and provide a broader understanding of the structure of the human brain.

HBP researchers studied three levels of cortical structure: cytoarchitecture, neurotransmitter receptor architecture, and neurotransmitter receptor gene expression.

The study goes beyond the simplified view of the “mosaic” of areas that make up the neocortex, explaining the principles of the structure of the human brain in terms of visual, auditory, somatosensory and motor functional systems.

The results were published in the journal neuroimaging.

To reveal the different properties of functional systems and how brain regions within a functional system differ from the primary hierarchy of processing, the team analyzed the cytoarchitectonic and receptor-architectural data of the three-dimensional multimodal atlas Julich Brain Atlas. The human brain – and Allen compares the data with the transcriptomic data of the Atlas of the Human Brain.

“Closing the gap between different levels of brain organization is one of the biggest problems in neurology today. Jul Brain Atlas we can do this internationally. It combines data and is an invaluable tool, ”said Daniel Zaklod, the study’s first author.

The researchers studied the relationship between the density of neurotransmitter receptors and the corresponding genes in 15 cytoarchitectonic regions of the visual, auditory, somatosensory and motor systems. They were able to analyze the differential gene expression in the brain regions of each of these functional systems.

“We found that receptor architecture and gene expression patterns within a functional system change systematically according to the complexity of information processing,” said Catherine Amunts, HBP’s research director and the study’s latest author.

Areas analyzed: visual system (purple line), auditory (orange) and range of motion (dark gray) and somatosensory area (green line). Credit: The Human Brain Project

Research has shown how to open structure-function relationships using the multi-level Julich-Brain Atlas to integrate different scales of brain structure.

Previous studies have shown the relevance of gene expression receptors for the functional differentiation of the rodent brain, but data on the human brain are much rarer and more fragmented.

The authors of this study argue that in order to better understand the pathogenesis of damage to the healthy brain, as well as changes in neurotransmitter systems, it is necessary to disseminate such studies in the human brain.

This is about the news of brain map research

Author: Helen Mendez
A source: The human brain project
The connection: Helen Mendez – Human Brain Project
Photo: Image in public domain

Original study: Open access.
“Combined analysis of cytoarchitectonic, molecular, and transcriptomic models reveals differences in the organization of the brain across human functional brain systems,” Daniel Zahlod et al. NeuroImage

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Abstract

The combined analysis of cytoarchitectonic, molecular and transcriptomic models reveals differences in the organization of the brain in terms of functional brain systems.

Specific cell, molecular, and gene expression patterns related to function are shown in brain regions, but their exact relationship is almost unknown.

To reveal these structure-function relationships, a combined analysis of 53 neurotransmitter receptor genes, receptor density of six conduction systems and cytoarchitectonic data of auditory, somatosensory, visual, and motor systems was performed.

In addition to covariance of area gene expression by receptor density, the study reveals specific models of gene expression in functional systems that are most prominent for GABA inhibitors.THE and irritating glutamatergic NMDA receptors.

In addition, gene expression-receptor relationships have changed systematically depending on the flow of information from the primary to the associative regions.

Studies have shed new light on the relationship between the anatomical, functional, and molecular and transcriptomic principles of cortical segregation toward a broader understanding of the structure of the human brain.

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