Sugar disrupts the microbiome, eliminating protection against obesity and diabetes

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Graphic summary. Credit: cell (2022). DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.08.005

A research in mice discovered that dietary sugar alters the intestine microbiome, triggering a series of occasions that result in metabolic illness, pre-diabetes and weight achieve.

The outcomes had been revealed in the present day cellconsider that food regimen is essential, however an optimum microbiome is equally essential for stopping metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and obesity.

Diet adjustments the microbiome

A Western-style high-fat, high-sugar food regimen can result in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, but it surely’s unclear how the food regimen initiates dangerous adjustments in the physique.

The intestine microbiome is important for an animal’s vitamin, so Ivalo Ivanov, affiliate professor of microbiology and immunology at Columbia University’s Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, and colleagues studied the early results of a Western-style food regimen. the microbiome of mice.

After 4 weeks on the food regimen, the animals developed metabolic syndrome, akin to weight achieve, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. And their microbiomes modified dramatically, with segmented filamentous micro organism—widespread in the intestine microbiota of rodents, fish, and chickens—dramatically lowering and different micro organism growing.

Microbiome adjustments alter Th17 cells

The researchers discovered that the discount of filamentous micro organism was essential to the animals’ well being by way of its results on Th17 immune cells. Depletion of filamentous micro organism decreased the variety of Th17 cells in the intestine, and additional experiments confirmed that Th17 cells are important for stopping metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and weight achieve.

“These immune cells produce molecules that decelerate the absorption of ‘unhealthy’ lipids from the intestines, lowering irritation in the intestine,” says Ivanov. “In different phrases, they preserve the intestine wholesome and stop the physique from absorbing pathogenic lipids.”

Sugar vs. fats

What part of a high-fat, high-sugar food regimen induced these adjustments? Ivanov’s crew decided that sugar was the offender.

“Sugar destroys the filamentous micro organism, and because of this, the protecting Th17 cells are destroyed,” says Ivanov. “When we fed the mice a sugar-free, high-fat food regimen, they retained Th17 cells in the intestine and had been fully shielded from obesity and pre-diabetes, even once they ate the similar variety of energy.”

But eliminating sugar did not assist all the mice. Among these with no filamentous micro organism to start with, sugar elimination didn’t work properly and the animals turned overweight and developed diabetes.

“Some in style dietary interventions, akin to lowering these sugars, could solely work in folks with particular bacterial populations of their microbiota,” says Ivanov.

In such circumstances, sure probiotics could also be useful. In Ivanov’s mice, supplementation with filamentous micro organism led to the restoration of Th17 cells and protection against metabolic syndrome, no matter the animals’ high-fat food regimen.

Although people haven’t got filamentous micro organism like mice, Ivanov thinks different micro organism in people could have an identical protecting impact.

Injecting Th17 cells into mice additionally gives protection and could also be a remedy for people. “The microbiota is essential, however the actual protection comes from the Th17 cells induced by the micro organism,” says Ivanov.

“Our analysis highlights that the complicated interplay between food regimen, microbiota and the immune system performs a key function in the improvement of obesity, metabolic syndrome, sort 2 diabetes and different situations,” says Ivanov. “This suggests not solely altering your food regimen for optimum well being, but in addition bettering your microbiome or intestine immune system, akin to growing Th17 cell-producing micro organism.”

A low-calorie food regimen alters the intestine microbiome and delays immune growing old

More data:
Yoshinaga Kawano et al. cell (2022). DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.08.005

Log data:

Provided by Columbia University Irving Medical Center

Quote: Sugar disrupts microbiome, destroys protection against obesity and diabetes (2022, August 29) Accessed August 30, 2022 has been taken.

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