Sugar disrupts the microbiome and destroys protection against obesity and diabetes

Summary: High-sugar Western diets scale back the variety of Th17 inflammatory cells in the intestine of mice, triggering a series of occasions that results in metabolic illness, prediabetes, and obesity.

A supply: Columbia University

A examine in mice discovered that dietary sugar alters the intestine microbiome, triggering a series of occasions that result in metabolic illness, pre-diabetes and weight acquire.

The outcomes had been revealed right this moment cellconsider that food regimen is essential, however an optimum microbiome is equally essential for stopping metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and obesity.

Diet adjustments the microbiome

A Western-style high-fat, high-sugar food regimen can result in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, but it surely’s unclear how the food regimen initiates dangerous adjustments in the physique.

The intestine microbiome is crucial for an animal’s vitamin, so Ivalo Ivanov, PhD, affiliate professor of microbiology and immunology at Columbia University’s Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, and colleagues studied the early results of a Western-style food regimen on the microbiome of mice. .

After 4 weeks on the food regimen, the animals developed metabolic syndrome, reminiscent of weight acquire, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. And their microbiomes modified dramatically, with segmented filamentous micro organism—widespread in the intestine microbiota of rodents, fish, and chickens—dramatically reducing and different micro organism growing.

Microbiome adjustments alter Th17 cells

The researchers discovered that the discount of filamentous micro organism was essential to the animals’ well being by its results on Th17 immune cells. Depletion of filamentous micro organism diminished the variety of Th17 cells in the intestine, and additional experiments confirmed that Th17 cells are important for stopping metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and weight acquire.

“These immune cells create molecules that decelerate the absorption of ‘unhealthy’ lipids in the intestine, decreasing irritation in the intestine,” says Ivanov. “In different phrases, they preserve the intestine wholesome and shield the physique from absorbing pathogenic lipids.”

Sugar vs. fats

What part of a high-fat, high-sugar food regimen triggered these adjustments? Ivanov’s staff decided that sugar was the perpetrator.

“Sugar destroys filamentous micro organism, leading to the destruction of protecting Th17 cells,” says Ivanov. “When we fed the mice a sugar-free, high-fat food regimen, they retained Th17 cells in the intestine and had been utterly shielded from obesity and pre-diabetes, even after they ate the identical variety of energy.”

What part of a high-fat, high-sugar food regimen triggered these adjustments? Ivanov’s staff decided that sugar was the perpetrator. Image is in the public area

But eliminating sugar did not assist all the mice. Among these with no filamentous micro organism to start with, sugar elimination didn’t work nicely and the animals grew to become overweight and developed diabetes.

“It’s attainable that some fashionable dietary interventions, reminiscent of decreasing sugar, could solely work in individuals with particular bacterial populations of their microbiota,” says Ivanov.

In such circumstances, sure probiotics could also be useful. In Ivanov’s mice, supplementation with filamentous micro organism led to the restoration of Th17 cells and protection against metabolic syndrome, no matter the animals’ high-fat food regimen.

Although people do not have filamentous micro organism like mice, Ivanov thinks different micro organism in people could have an identical protecting impact.

Injecting Th17 cells into mice additionally gives protection and could also be a treatment for people. “The microbiota is essential, however the actual protection comes from the Th17 cells induced by the micro organism,” says Ivanov.

“Our analysis highlights that advanced interactions between food regimen, microbiota and the immune system play a key position in the growth of obesity, metabolic syndrome, sort 2 diabetes and different circumstances,” says Ivanov. “It suggests not solely altering your food regimen for optimum well being, but in addition bettering your microbiome or intestine immune system, reminiscent of growing Th17 cell-producing micro organism.”

All authors: Yoshinaga Kawano (Columbia and Keio University School of Medicine), Madeline Edwards (Columbia), Yiming Huang (Columbia), Angelina M. Bilate (Rockefeller University), Leandro P. Araujo (Colombia), Takeshi Tanue (Keio University School of Medicine and RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences), Koji Atarashi (Keio University School of Medicine and RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences), Mark S. Ladinsky (California Institute of Technology), Steven L. Reiner (Columbia), Harris H. Wang (Columbia), Daniel Muchida (Rockefeller University), Kenya Honda (Keio University School of Medicine and RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences), and Iwailo I. Ivanov (Colombia).

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Funding: This work was supported by funding from the US National Institutes of Health (DK098378, AI144808, AI163069, AI146817, DK093674, DK113375, AI132403, DK118044, and EB03193); Burroughs Wellcome Fund (PATH1019125 and PATH1016691); fellowships from the MSD Life Science Foundation, the Russell Berry Foundation, and the Naomi Berry Diabetes Center at Columbia University Irving Medical Center; a Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (20H05627); US National Science Foundation (MCB-2025515); and the Irma T Hirschl Trust.

This is about food regimen and obesity analysis information

Author: Lucky Tran
A supply: Columbia University
The connection: Lucky Tran – Columbia University
Photo: Image is in the public area

Original analysis: Closed entry.
“Dietary Sugar-Induced Microbiota Imbalance Impairs Immune Protection Against Metabolic Syndrome” Ivalyo Ivanov et al. cell


Abstract

Dietary sugar-induced microbiota imbalance impairs immune protection against metabolic syndrome.

How intestine microbes regulate metabolic syndrome shouldn’t be absolutely understood. We present that the intestine microbiota protects against the growth of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and prediabetic phenotypes by inducing commensal-specific Th17 cells.

A high-fat, high-sugar food regimen promoted metabolic illness by eliminating Th17-inducing microbes, and restoration of commensal Th17 cells restored protection. Microbiota-induced Th17 cells offered protection by regulating lipid absorption throughout the intestinal epithelium in an IL-17-dependent method. Diet-induced lack of protecting Th17 cells is induced by the presence of sugar.

Sugar elimination from high-fat diets induces obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice depending on commensal-specific Th17 cells. Sugar and promoted the development of ILC3 Faecalibaculum rodentium Altered Th17-inducing microbiota. These outcomes determine dietary and microbiota danger elements for metabolic syndrome.

They additionally determine a microbiota-dependent mechanism for the immunopathogenicity of dietary sugar and spotlight the delicate interaction between food regimen, microbiota, and intestine immunity in the regulation of metabolic disturbances.

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