Avian neurons use three times less glucose than mammalian neurons

Summary: Neurons in hen brains are extra power environment friendly than mammalian brains.

A supply: Cell Press

Birds have spectacular cognitive talents and exhibit excessive ranges of intelligence. Compared to mammals of roughly the identical dimension, birds have extra neurons of their brains.

Now a brand new research reviews Current Biology Sept. 8 helps clarify how birds can retailer extra mind cells: their neurons run on less gas within the type of glucose.

Kaya von Eugen of the Ruhr University in Bochum, Germany, stated: “What shocked us probably the most was that the neurons consumed less glucose.

“But the magnitude of the distinction is so nice that dimension can’t be the one issue. This means there have to be one thing else within the hen’s mind that permits it to maintain prices so low.

In a landmark 2016 research, researchers discovered that birds’ brains have extra neurons than mammals’ brains. Because brains are principally made up of energy-dense tissue, this raised an essential query: How can birds help so many neurons?

To reply this query, von Eugen and colleagues got down to decide the neural power funds of birds based mostly on analysis in pigeons. They used imaging strategies that allowed them to evaluate glucose metabolism in birds. They additionally used modeling strategies to measure the mind’s metabolic price and glucose consumption.

Their analysis discovered that the pigeon’s mind consumes surprisingly little glucose (27.29 ± 1.57 μmol of glucose per 100 g per minute) when the animal is awake. This interprets right into a surprisingly low power funds for the mind, particularly when in comparison with that of mammals.

This implies that neurons in hen brains eat three times less glucose on common than in mammalian brains. In different phrases, their neurons are, for causes nonetheless unclear, cheaper.

According to von Jugen, these variations could also be because of the birds’ greater physique temperatures or the particular construction of their brains. Bird brains are additionally smaller on common than mammalian brains. But their brains retain spectacular capabilities, maybe partially due to cheaper however extra neurons.

Their analysis discovered that the pigeon’s mind consumes surprisingly little glucose (27.29 ± 1.57 μmol of glucose per 100 g per minute) when the animal is awake. Image is within the public area

“Our discovering explains how birds can activate so many neurons with out compromising processing energy,” von Jugen.

“In the lengthy parallel evolution of birds and mammals, birds have developed smaller brains with extra neurons able to superior cognitive talents.

“And the mixed impact of the hen’s distinctive components – small neuron dimension, excessive physique temperature and the construction of the hen mind – appears to have created a doable benefit in excessive effectivity in neural processing of knowledge: superior neurons and low-cost neurons. processing energy.”

The researchers say they wish to perceive how the birds’ neurons eat less glucose. While they’ve concepts about how this would possibly work, additional analysis and testing is required to uncover “a exact mechanistic clarification of how birds obtain such environment friendly neural processing.”

Funding: This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

Neuroscience analysis information about it

Author: Christopher Behnke
A supply: Cell Press
The connection: Christopher Behnke – CellPress
Photo: Image is within the public area

Original analysis: Open entry.
“Avian neurons eat three times less glucose than mammalian neurons” Kaya von Jugen et al. Current Biology


Abstract

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Avian neurons eat three times less glucose than mammalian neurons

Important moments

  • Brain tissue of awake pigeons consumes 27.29 ± 1.57 μmol of glucose per 100 g per minute.
  • This is the same as 1.86 × 10-9 ± 0.2 × 10-9 μmol of glucose per neuron per minute
  • Thus, the neuronal power funds of pigeons is about 3 times decrease than that of mammals
  • This most likely reveals the effectivity of the neural course of within the hen group

A consequence

The mind is without doubt one of the most energetically costly tissues within the mammalian physique.

This is principally attributable to costly neurons with excessive glucose necessities.

Among mammals, the neuronal power funds could have imposed evolutionary constraints on mind development.

Compared to mammals of comparable dimension, birds have a better variety of neurons, and this benefit contributes to their cognitive talents.

We aimed to elucidate how birds can metabolically help such a lot of neurons as a way to decide the neuronal power funds of birds. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) as a radiotracer in awake and anesthetized pigeons. Together with kinetic modeling, that is the gold commonplace for figuring out cerebral metabolic price (CMR) of glucose consumption.glc).

We discovered that within the pigeon, neuronal tissue consumes 27.29 ± 1.57 μmol of glucose per 100 g per minute within the awake state, which surprisingly interprets to a neuronal power funds of 1.86 × 10 .-9 ± 0.2 × 10-9 μmol of glucose per neuron per minute. This is about 3 times decrease than the typical mammalian neuron.

A low neuronal power funds explains how pigeons, and probably different hen species, can help such massive numbers of neurons with out metabolic prices or disruption of neuronal signaling. The benefit in high-efficiency neural processing of knowledge arose within the particular evolution of the hen mind.

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